Red grape variety widespread in Piedmont and of ancient origin. It comes from the lands that were before the Marquis and then the Duchy of Monferrato. Strong adaptability to soil type and climate, abundant production, high yield of must and richness of color encouraged farmers to plant vineyards and to produce wine. Its importance grew significantly at the end of the nineteenth century when it was recognized as a strong and vigorous vine can resist phylloxera, which had invaded, destroying them, several vineyards.
Shortly Barbera became the Piedmontese grape par excellence and its wine undisputed protagonist of farmhouse tables, the daily life of all the Piedmont hills. The vine Barbera attests in an exemplary manner the singular good fortune of the Langhe and Roero area: producing great wines for aging and at the same time give emotions in younger wines.
In the past the Piedmont Barbera was considered "rustic", but with time grew in the estimation of the public because it has proven capable of providing, through appropriate winemaking processes, both excellent wines ready to drink, both wines of average longevity and good structure resisting time and confirm, after many years, the most original character of a land and a vine from the particular prestige. As for the Nebbiolo Barbera also shows in his character the nature of the soil of origin and the footprint soft and persuasive of calcareous marl clay for brevity we call "the white lands".
Dolcetto is among the most typical Piedmontese native grapes grown in varying degrees and is a bit anywhere in the region. It prefers calcareous marl on the hills between 250 and 600 meters above sea level, but fails to mature beyond the 700.
Its ideal cradle is the Langa. For centuries, this vine variety black berry has shared the fortunes and the miseries of the people of the country. While not a particularly vigorous plant or resistant to the difficulties and diseases, in fact, Dolcetto has always been able to offer growers the fruits sweet and ripe for the table, also suitable to produce a special jam (the Cognà) and, above all, the raw material for a wine with character frank and simple. Historically, Dolcetto was the bargaining chip with Liguria: from the coastal region supply of oil, salt and anchovies, basic ingredients of one of the most famous dishes of the Southern Piedmont, the "Bagna Caoda".
In Cuneo is bartered Dolcetto grapes with calves kept in plain, so as to have in the stables of the hill-bred animals. The wine Dolcetto had a moment of great fortune in 70-80 years when it was just the product of the cafeteria everyday and vineyard equipment have expanded. Today its expansion has stopped, the local consumer experiences also other wines. Dolcetto, however, retains its ancestral relationship with the people who normally uses the meal.
The name of the grape comes from the particular sweetness of grape pulp, but the wines made from it are exclusively dried and very dry, characterized by a moderate acidity and a pleasant bitter aftertaste. Depending on the area of cultivation and the type of wine, Dolcetto gives rise to fresh and drinkable wines that accompany the daily table thanks to their softness, freshness of taste and ability to adapt to many different foods; or wines most evolved form, body and structure, capable of aging for up to six to seven years thanks to the expert work in the vineyard and in the winery proper management by producers.
In the twenties and thirties of the twentieth century Dolcetto grapes were often used in the so-called grape cure, for the delicate flavor and low acid content and tannins. Dolcetto grapes, in fact, have remineralizing, depurative, diuretic, laxative and decongestant for the liver as they facilitate the hepatic drainage.
* If vineyard and geographical name are included on the label, yield is reduced to 7200 Kg/hectare (grapes) or 5040 litres/hectare (wine) and the minimum natural alcohol content is increased by 0.5%.
** If vineyard and geographical name are included on the label, yield is reduced to 6300 Kg/hectare (grapes) or 4284 litres/hectare (wine)and minimum alcohol content is increased by 0.5%.
Unfortunately there is no certain information about the origin of this vine. Some documents mention from '500. Customs tariffs of Pancalieri dated 1517 registered barrels of fresearum, considered of great value.
In 1692 Pietro Francesco Cotti writes that he planted in Freisa in a place called Brichetto, in that of Neive, still in the cellar of Lu in 1760 clearly speaks of the purchase of cuttings of Freisa and always in the same place it comes to wine Freisa. The first to describe it was Count Nuvolone on "Calendar georgic of Turin Agricultural Society".
At the end of the 1880 appears as one of the main grape of Piedmont in the Album ampelografico, compiled by a committee of experts chaired by Count Giovanni Rovasenda, perhaps the most illustrious ampelographer Piedmont 800, also recognized at European level.
It adapts optimally both in clayey soils that marl. From this it derives its wide spread in all provinces of Piedmont wine.
It is the oldest native black grape of Piedmont, one of the noblest and most precious of Italy. Its name derives from "fog": according to some because its grapes give the impression of being "clouded", covered by abundant bloom; according to others, however, because the late-ripening grape harvest pushes to the rise of the first mists of autumn. Nebbiolo is able to bear well the labor of centuries, to arrive intact to this day.
Also known as the "queen of black grapes", care needs careful and time-consuming, which is why its cultivation has experienced periods of splendor and obfuscation, but it has never been abandoned by local growers, aware of the high value of the wines made from it. It is very demanding in terms of location and exposure of the soil, treatment and fertilization. The calcareous tufa and are ideal for this vine sprouting prematurely between the middle and the end of April.
Ripens quite late compared to others, in the first half of October. Quite sensitive to sudden temperature takes advantage of fluctuations between day and night during maturation but the wealth of tannins of its skin requires hilly positions well exposed to the sun, preferably south-southwest, between 200 and 450 mt. above sea level, protected from frost and cold spring.
It gives birth to strong wines, rich in alcohol which often better express their characteristics as a result of a slow aging. Depending on the area of cultivation, Nebbiolo gives rise to a number of great red wines of the Piedmont wine pride.
The table shows average figures for the last 5 years.